Formal Programs that are more Relevant to Industry
The Project will improve access to formal TVET that is linked to the demands of industry and will use industry-endorsed skills competency standards as the basis for the training curriculum, trainer training, training equipment, and an assessment of trainee performance. It will also facilitate expanded access to formal training for girls.
Upgrade five provincial training centers to regional training centers. PTCs in five provinces (Battambang, Kampot, Siem Reap, Svay Rieng and Takeo) will be expanded and upgraded to RTCs so they can offer formal TVET programs in rural areas at entry, mid-level, and technician levels in mechanics, construction, and ICT and business. The RTC training programs will be based on the new standards and curriculum. In addition, the RTCs will be the venue for regional inservice training for instructors, organized from the NTTI. The institutional management and development skills of the RTC directors will be sharpened through comprehensive training and mentoring. ICT training, trainer training and subject- and technology-based upgrading will be provided to all RTC instructors. The Project will also support the construction of hostels for female trainees in each RTC. The PTCs to be upgraded were chosen on the basis of their institutional performance, geographic location and a growing enterprise base that could absorb skilled graduates.
Develop training modules based on skills standards and train trainers. The Project will develop competency standards for mechanics, construction, and ICT and business. Capacity will be built among lead teachers from the specialist institutes, trainers from NTTI, and senior officers of DGTVET. In addition, curricula and learning materials for the new standards will be produced for the PTCs and RTCs; equipment for the new curriculum will be installed; assessment procedures will be developed; and assessors trained. Effective implementation of the new standards-based programs will be supported through regular training of all PTC and RTC teachers in TVET skills development and instructional techniques for the new curriculum.
Increase industry involvement. Independent industry advisory groups consisting primarily of employers will be established in each industry sector to review standards, endorsement, and ongoing assistance in curriculum, training development, and assessment procedures. More contracting of small-scale employers for VSTP training will also occur, both through increased allocations of training hours and increased numbers of trainees.
Strengthen the National Technical Training Institute for system upgrading. An important project initiative is the establishment of a new, integrated system to develop skills standards, curriculum and training materials, and TVET teacher training. This will be achieved through the closer integration of institutions in pedagogy, technical skills development and entrepreneurship. NTTI will be the lead institution for teacher training and curriculum and three specialist institutes in mechanics, construction, and ICT and business will be responsible for developing skills standards and training models for the target industry sectors (the Industrial Technical Institute, the National Institute of business and the Preah Kossomak Polytechnic Institute). A fourth institute (the Cambodia-India Entrepreneurship Development Center) will be responsible for entrepreneurship. Each technology institution will bring together an industry advisory group; provide technical direction for the development of skills standards; assist the development of curriculum and learning materials; support the training of assessors from industry; provide skills strengthening for NTTI trainees and in-service training; and monitor training in the PTCs. The technical skills of lead teachers from each institute will be upgraded through regional training, and training equipment to match the new curriculum will be provided. A postgraduate TVET teacher-training program will also be introduced (Appendix 4).
Expaned and Better Quality Nonformal Training
ReducedThe second output of the Project will extend national access to (i) nonformal TVET training (including in urban areas); (ii) training provision for the young and unemployed, female and male; and (iii) nonformal programs at different levels that yield qualifications allowing graduates to enter the next level of training.
Establish provincial training centers in unserved provinces. PTCs now exist in 21 of the 23 rural provinces. All PTCs target rural poverty alleviation through courses that relate directly to enhancement of family income. The Project will support the development of a PTC in the provincial capitals in each of the two remaining rural provinces (Mondulkiri and Preah Vihear), providing classrooms, workshops, equipment and teacher upgrading. Women will make up 50% of enrollments at the newly constructed PTCs in Mondulkiri and Preah Vihear. The Project will also support the rehabilitation of existing PTCs as needed.
Extend the voucher skills training program to all provinces. The pilot VSTP supported the development and delivery of nonformal, community-responsive training in seven of the poorest provinces, covering 90,000 participants. The communes selected received a “voucher’ to fund training linked to local commune planning. Under this Project, a revised VSTP will be extended to all 24 provinces (with a further 210,000 participants). Provinces will progressively engage with the scheme, to allow strengthening and preparation of inexperienced PTCs. Each province will be funded for a 2-year period. To improve the quality of training, the expanded VSTP will be modified through (i) reductions in group size in field-based training, (ii) greater emphasis on enterprise attachments and center-based training and combinations of both,(iii) new incentives for placing VSTP graduates in employment, and (iv) the implementation of a pilot urban VSTP. The pilot will be located in Phnom Penh and will be implemented in the automotive sector through contracted enterprise placements, administered by the Japan Vocational Center, a training institution under MOLVT. At least 50% of the recipients of training under the expanded and rural VSTP will be women (see Appendix 5 for more information on the VSTP).
Develop directors and staff of provincial training centers. The Project will strengthen management capacity in all 24 institutions to develop and manage demand-responsive training. PTC directors who implemented the pilot VSTP will mentor other directors. DGTVET confirms that some of the best PTC directors are women, and they will play a key role in the training and mentoring strategy for other directors. Staff directly managing the VSTP will be trained in (i) linking with small employers through informal apprenticeships, (ii) management and planning, (iii) finance, (iv) community outreach, entrepreneurship, and revenue generation, (v) provincial training board (PTB) support, (vi) career guidance and job placement for graduates, and (vii) data reporting.
Upgrade training on skills standards in the provincial training centers. All PTC instructors will be trained for the new curriculum through in-service training in the five RTCs. Equipment will be provided to the PTCs to meet the training requirements of the three industry sectors. Assessment services and new procedures for recognition of prior learning will be provided to give workers credit for training and to support progress to further training. Technical staff from the NTTI complex and DGTVET will undertake regular mentoring and compliance visits.
Increasing accessibility to structured skills training. Currently, graduates from nonformal training in PTCs cannot continue to government-provided mid-level training unless they have higher academic qualifications (i.e., they have completed lower secondary school).The Project will take the first steps toward a more integrated system by developing new courses, curricula and standards to systematize nonformal training by introducing pathways to higher levels of training within the nonformal system. To improve the pathways between nonformal and formal programs, strategies that allowing more students to progress from nonformal to mid-level formal programs will be identified. This will eventually allow PTC graduates to enter mid-level programs in the RTCs and elsewhere.
Strengthened Institutional Capacity to Plan & Manage Technical and Vocational Education and Training
The Project will strengthen the capacity of DGTVET, provincial offices, and the training institutions in policy development, management and supervision; planning; budget preparation and disbursement; financial management and reporting requirements; information collection, processing, analysis and dissemination; quality assurance; and system governance and support. The proposed strategies for the development of management capacity are in Supplementary Appendix D and the human resource development plan is in Supplementary Appendix E.
Assess technical and vocational education and training policies. The evolution of the Cambodian economy, changes in the educational and social preferences of Cambodians that affect demand for education, and dramatic improvements in access to basic education, suggest that it is time to review the TVET policy framework in Cambodia. The Project will undertake a comprehensive review of current policies, strategies and structures to identify the reforms needed to help match the system to the needs of industry while still serving the needs of those who lack academic qualifications. The study will examine the levels of training, the qualifications offered, and pathways between different levels and types of training, as well as the regulatory and financing framework for the TVET system, the scope for public–private partnerships in training provision, and improved institutional financing. A second study will look at potential sources of additional financing, including a training levy. Both studies will help to ensure that the TVET system can develop according to the country's emerging needs and demands.
Strengthen planning capacity. DGTVET will formulate a new Medium-Term TVET Development Plan (MTTDP), a Medium-Term Expenditure Framework, 2012–2014 and annual operational plans for 2010 to 2015. The Project will support system planning through a senior level study tour on regional TVET policy for NTB and PTB members and senior officials. Support will also be provided for annual NTB policy reviews as a basis for preparing the MTTDP, the annual plan, and the expenditure framework.
Strengthen management capacity. To build a stronger system for DGTVET monitoring of training institutions, officers will be trained in system management, supervision and development (Supplementary Appendix D). Financial management in PTCs and DGTVET will be strengthened, as well as the institutional management and development skills of directors in all PTCs, RTCs, and polytechnics. All mid-level female DGTVET officers will be selected for regional training, while 50% of officers selected from the provincial Labor and Vocational Training Department will also be women.
Improve technical and vocational education and training information systems. System management and planning will be supported by the design, development, and commissioning of a vocational education and training management information system (VETMIS) and a labor market information system (LMIS) to provide essential data on the training system and the skill requirements of industry. ICT facilities and training will be provided for MOLVT and all of its training institutions and provincial offices. Gender- and, where relevant,ethnicity-disaggregated indicators, including those related to TVET outcomes, efficiency and effectiveness, will be incorporated into the VETMIS and LMIS. Further information is in Supplementary Appendix G.
Develop and implement skills standards. The expertise and systems for skills standards development in partnership with industry will be supported, leading to the agreement of an NVQF by 2015. Project activities will target the three selected industry sectors to ensure full development of relevant standards and capacity building, and effective industry and enterprise links for later replication and extension to other skills areas. Training will be provided to relevant national and provincial officers in the development and implementation of the new national skills standards-based training system and skills assessment. More detail on the development and implementation of skills standards is in Appendix 6.
Introduce career information systems. The Project will develop and distribute career guidance materials for schools, and develop a web portal for dissemination of career guidance information, to encourage young people to take up vocational training and consider a related career. The materials and outreach activities will also encourage young women to take up training in nontraditional skills areas. As a condition of involvement in the VSTP, PTCs will be required to designate a staff member to take responsibility for career guidanceand employment placement for graduates of the program (Supplementary Appendix H).